The trend toward use of heavier crudes increases the carbon footprint of petroleum products

Heavier crudes are, by definition, more viscous. The also contain greater amounts of sulfur, which must be removed because of the adverse impact of sulfur on various catalysts used in the refining process. The sulfur content of fuel is also controlled because of its impact on particulate generation....

Smoke from fires can travel thousands of miles impacting weather, climate, and air quality

Prior posts have noted the impact of fires in Southeast Asia on air pollution throughout the region. While it has been known for decades that large wildfires can create or enhance thunderstorm clouds, leading to what are called pyrocumulonimbus clouds ("pyroCbs"), only recently have researchers...