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The Shepard's Signalâ„¢ Indicators

  1. The Shepard's Signal™ indicators are integrated into case law documents and provide an immediate indication of the subsequent history and treatment of a particular case. When these codes are present, the LexisNexis® research service displays one of the following signals.

    Note: Not every case will have a Shepard's Signal indicator.
    When a signal is generated from the Subsequent Appellate History, the system looks at the Subsequent Appellate History as a chain of interconnected events. Thus, the phrase generating the signal may be assigned to a decision in that chain that does not apply directly to your case, but may be several links in the chain away from your case.


    Indicator

    Description

    Red Stop Sign signal

    Warning: Negative treatment is indicated
    The red Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references in the Shepard's® Citations Service contain strong negative history or treatment of your case (for example, overruled by or reversed).

    red exclamation point icon

    Warning: Negative treatment is indicated for statute
    The red exclamation point Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references in the Shepard's Citations Service contain strong negative treatment of the Shepardized™ section (for example, the section may have been found to be unconstitutional or void).

    Orange Q signal

    Questioned: Validity questioned by citing references
    The orange Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that the citing references in the Shepard's Citations Service contain treatment that questions the continuing validity or precedential value of your case because of intervening circumstances, including judicial or legislative overruling.

    Yellow Triangle signal

    Caution: Possible negative treatment indicated
    The yellow Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references in the Shepard's Citations Service contain history or treatment that may have a significant negative impact on your case (for example, limited or criticized by).

    Positive Treatment (green diamond) signal

    Positive treatment indicated
    The green Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references in the Shepard's Citations Service contain history or treatment that has a positive impact on your case (for example, affirmed or followed by).

    Blue A Circle signal

    Citing references with analysis available
    The blue "A" Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references in the Shepard's Citations Service contain treatment of your case that is neither positive nor negative (for example, explained).

    Blue I Circle signal

    Citation information available
    The blue "I" Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references are available in the Shepard's Citations Service for your case, but the references do not have history or treatment analysis (for example, the references are law review citations).

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