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Citation signals
The citation signal appearing next to a case name indicates whether the decision has received positive, negative, cautionary or neutral treatment in subsequent judgments. The signal is a summary of the annotation information available from the list of appeal proceedings and cases referring to this case. Clicking on these signals will take you to the citation entry for these decisions. Hover your mouse over the symbol for a description.
Negative Treatment Negative Treatment Icon
The case has negative history (judicial review allowed, reconsideration allowed, reversed,
quashed, or varied by a higher court) or negative treatments (not followed or questioned by a
subsequent court).
Cautionary Treatment Cautionary Treatment Icon
The case has been distinguished by a subsequent court.
Positive Treatment Positive Treatment Icon
The case has positive history (affirmed, judicial review denied, or leave to appeal
refused by a higher court) or positive treatments (followed or followed in a minority opinion of a
subsequent court).
Neutral History or Treatment Neutral Treatment Icon
The case has neutral treatments (mentioned, explained, cited, or cited in a dissenting opinion) or the case has history (abandoned, abated, leave to appeal granted, reconsideration denied, related proceeding, same case, or supplementary reasons by a subsequent court), but the citing court does not comment on the case.

This symbol is also attached to cases that have been added to Quicklaw within the past 3 business days, but have not yet been assigned a QuickCITE treatment.
Citator Information Citator Information Icon
The case has no known history or treatments. Click this link to view more information on this citation.
History of Case
Listed here are previous or subsequent proceedings relating to the primary case. The annotation before the case name listed indicates whether the case affirmed, varied, reversed, etc. the case before it.

Definitions of Case Histories
  • Abandoned — appeal is withdrawn by one or both parties, or by the court for failure to actively pursue the appeal.
  • Abated — issue has become moot, for example, when one of the parties dies.
  • Affirmed — appeal is dismissed, whether or not the decision of the court below is expressly affirmed. If the court of the citing case is evenly divided, the appeal is treated as dismissed.
  • Judicial Review Allowed — court grants an application for relief from an administrative decision.
  • Judicial Review Denied — court refuses an application for relief from an administrative decision.
  • Leave to Appeal Granted — citing decision allows leave to appeal.
  • Leave to Appeal Refused — citing decision refuses leave to appeal.
  • Reconsideration Allowed — court or board grants a request to amend or reverse its original decision.
  • Reconsideration Denied — court or board refuses a request to amend or reverse its original decision.
  • Related Proceeding — citing decision refers to an earlier proceeding arising out of the same facts and involving the same parties.
  • Reversed — appeal is allowed and the decision of the court below reversed, whether or not the matter is sent back for further adjudication.
  • Supplementary Reasons — citing decision arises from issues raised in the initial decision, such as costs, sentencing, damages, or further liability. They will often be contained in a corrigendum or an addendum.
  • Varied — some alteration is made in the decision of the court below without completely rejecting it. The lower court decision is affirmed or reversed in part only.
  • Same Case As — a history relationship exists with a subsequent case.
  • Quashed — reviewing court sets aside a decision of a lower court on the basis that the lower court had no jurisdiction to decide the matter before it (also used where a warrant for committal in a criminal case is quashed or vacated).

Summary of Judicial Considerations
This is a summary of how many times this case has been judicially considered in other cases. Beside the type of treatment you will see how many times the treatment has been applied to this case. The complete list follows below. Positive treatments are in green and negative treatments are in red.

Definitions of Case Treatments
  • Distinguished — cited case is held to be inapplicable due to a difference in fact or law.
  • Explained — citing case adds to, expands upon, or interprets cited case. The cited case is not decisive, but is given some kind of consideration.
  • Followed — citing case in a majority or plurality opinion applies a principle of law from the cited case. The judge expressly relies on the cited case as a precedent on which to base a decision.
  • Followed in Minority Opinion — citing case, in an opinion other than a majority, plurality, or dissent, applies a principle of law from the cited case.
  • Cited — case is cited and may receive a more substantive treatment within 72 hours for recently added cases.
  • Cited in Dissenting Opinion — case is cited in a dissenting opinion.
  • Mentioned — citing case provides no more information about the cited case than what is available in the cited case itself.
  • Not Followed — citing case overrules or refuses to apply the cited case for some reason other than it was distinguishable.
  • Questioned — citing case criticizes the conclusion or reasoning of the cited case, without refusing to follow it. Alternatively, legislation in force at the time the cited case was decided has been amended to the extent that the cited case might have been decided differently under the amended legislation.

Citing Cases
Decisions which have subsequently considered the primary case are listed here. The annotation appearing before the case name indicates how the primary decision was treated in each of these cases. The citation signals appearing after the citation of the cases listed under this heading indicate the type of judicial treatment that each of these decisions has received. Clicking on these signals will take you to the citation entry for these decisions. You may filter and sort this list using the drop-downs located just above the start of the list. For example, you may wish to see only cases from Alberta, or only negative treatments of your case.
Narrow Citing Cases by Keywords
If you wish to filter your citing cases by keywords, perform the following steps:

  1. In the Narrow Citing Cases by Keywords input field, enter the desired terms and connectors.

  2. Click the Go button to run the narrow search. The Citing Cases table now contains only those cases that match the keywords entered.

  3. Review the results. If you need to narrow them further, repeat these steps.

Commentary Referring to this Case
This section lists commentary that refers to the case, including commentary title, citation, and source. To view a specific commentary, click the corresponding link in the Citation column.

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