The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1979 created both the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). OSHA is in the U.S. Department of Labor and is responsible for developing and enforcing workplace safety and health regulations. NIOSH is in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and is an agency established to help assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by providing research, information, education, and training in the field of occupational safety and health. Information pertaining to the responsibilities of NIOSH are found in Section 22 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 CFR § 671). The Institute is authorized to develop recommendations for occupational safety and health standards; perform all functions of the Secretary of Health and Human Services under Sections 20 and 21 of the Act; conduct Research on Worker Safety and Health (Section 20); conduct Training and Employee Education (Section 21); develop information on safe levels of exposure to toxic materials and harmful physical agents and substances; conduct research on new safety and health problems; conduct on-site investigations (Health Hazard Evaluations) to determine the toxicity of materials used in workplaces (42 CFR Parts 85 and 85a); and fund research by other agencies or private organizations through grants, contracts, and other arrangements. The Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977 delegated additional authority to NIOSH for coal mine health research. The mine health and safety law authorized NIOSH to develop recommendations for mine health standards for the Mine Safety and Health Administration; administer a medical surveillance program for coal miners, including chest X-rays to detect pneumoconiosis (black lung disease) in coal miners; conduct on-site investigations in mines similar to those authorized for general industry under the OSH Act; and test and certify personal protective equipment and hazard-measurement instruments. NIOSH provides national and world leadership to prevent work-related illness, injury, disability, and death by gathering information, conducting scientific research, and translating the knowledge gained into products and services. NIOSH's mission is critical to the health and safety of every American worker.