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CA9 Rejects Matter of Richardson: USA v. Garcia-Santana (Conspiracy Requires Overt Act)

"... [ Matter of] Richardson [25 I&N Dec. 226 (BIA 2010) ] interpreted “conspiracy” under § 1101(a)(43)(U) as referring to the common-law definition, and thus as omitting any overt-act requirement. ... We cannot accept this interpretation. ... We conclude ... that the BIA’s...