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Espinosa v. Ahearn (In re Hyundai & Kia Fuel Econ. Litig.)

United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

September 27, 2018, Argued and Submitted En Banc, Pasadena, California; June 6, 2019, Filed

No. 15-56014, No. 15-56025, No. 15-56059, No. 15-56061, No. 15-56064, No. 15-56067

Opinion

 [*552]  NGUYEN, Circuit Judge, with whom THOMAS, Chief Judge, and W. FLETCHER, BERZON, BYBEE, CHRISTEN, and HURWITZ, Circuit Judges, join in full, and with whom RAWLINSON, Circuit Judge, joins except as to part of section III.B.3:

We review five consolidated appeals from the district court's orders and judgment certifying a nationwide settlement class, approving a settlement, and awarding attorney's fees in a multidistrict litigation brought against defendants Hyundai Motor America and Kia Motors America (the "automakers") regarding alleged misrepresentations about their vehicles' fuel economy. After extensive litigation, the lead plaintiffs' counsel ("class counsel") and the automakers (collectively, the "settling parties") negotiated a settlement that  [*553]  the district court approved following eight months of confirmatory discovery. Objectors challenged the certification order and fee awards on various grounds. Finding none of them persuasive, we affirm.

I. Factual and Procedural Background

On January 6, 2012, class counsel McCuneWright, LLP filed the first of the putative nationwide [**6]  class actions, Espinosa v. Hyundai Motor America, No. 12-cv-800 (C.D. Cal.). The Espinosa plaintiffs brought claims against Hyundai under California consumer protection statutes and theories of common law fraud and negligent misrepresentation. They alleged that Hyundai misled consumers throughout the United States by advertising inflated fuel economy standards for the Hyundai Elantra and Sonata vehicle model years 2011-12 based on inaccurate estimates that Hyundai provided to the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA"). After several motions to dismiss, amendments to the complaint, and class discovery, including document production, depositions, and expert reports, the Espinosa plaintiffs moved to certify a nationwide litigation class of purchasers of Hyundai Elantra and Sonata vehicles.

In November and December 2012, the district court held hearings on the contested class certification motion in Espinosa. Although the court issued a tentative ruling declining to certify a nationwide litigation class in light of potentially "material differences" among state laws, it requested supplemental briefing and "did not make a final ruling."

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926 F.3d 539 *; 2019 U.S. App. LEXIS 17047 **; 103 Fed. R. Serv. 3d (Callaghan) 1258

IN RE HYUNDAI AND KIA FUEL ECONOMY LITIGATION, KEHLIE R. ESPINOSA; NICOLE MARIE HUNTER; JEREMY WILTON; KAYLENE P. BRADY; GUNTHER KRAUTH; ERIC GRAEWINGHOLT; REECE PHILIP THOMSON; ALEX MATURANI; NILUFAR REZAI; JACK ROTTNER; LYDIA KIEVIT; REBECCA SANDERS; BOBBY BRANDON ARMSTRONG; SERGIO TORRES; RICHARD WOODRUFF; MARSHALL LAWRENCE GORDON; JOEL A. LIPMAN; JAMES GUDGALIS; MARY P. HOESSLER; STEPHEN M. HAYES; BRIAN REEVES; SAM HAMMOND; MARK LEGGETT; EDWIN NAYTHONS; MICHAEL WASHBURN; IRA D. DUNST; BRIAN WEBER; KAMNEEL MAHARAJ; KIM IOCOVOZZI; HERBERT J. YOUNG; LINDA HASPER; LESLIE BAYARD; TRICIA FELLERS; ORLANDO ELLIOTT; JAMES BONSIGNORE; MARGARET SETSER; GUILLERMO QUIROZ; DOUGLAS KURASH; ANDRES CARULLO; LAURA S. SUTTA; GEORGIA L. THOMAS; ERIC J. OLSON; JENNIFER MYERS; TOM WOODWARD; JEROLD TERHOST; CAMERON JOHN CESTARO; DONALD BROWN; MARIA FIGUEROA; CONSTANCE MARTYN; THOMAS GANIM; DANIEL BALDESCHI; LILLIAN E. LEVOFF; GIUSEPPINA ROBERTO; ROBERT TRADER; SEAN GOLDSBERRY; CYNTHIA NAVARRO; OWEN CHAPMAN; MICHAEL BREIN; TRAVIS BRISSEY; RONALD BURKARD; ADAM CLOUTIER; STEVEN CRAIG; JOHN J. DIXSON; ERIN L. FANTHORPE; ERIC HADESH; MICHAEL P. KEETH; JOHN KIRK MACDONALD; MICHAEL MANDAHL; NICHOLAS MCDANIEL; MARY J. MORAN-SPICUZZA; GARY PINCAS; BRANDON POTTER; THOMAS PURDY; ROCCO RENGHINI; MICHELLE SINGLTEON; KEN SMILEY; GREGORY M. SONSTEIN; ROMAN STARNO; GAYLE A. STEPHENSON; ANDRES VILLICANA; RICHARD WILLIAMS; BRADFORD L. HIRSCH; ASHLEY CEPHAS; DAVID E. HILL; CHAD MCKINNEY; MORDECHAI SCHIFFER; LISA SANDS; DONALD KENDIG; KEVIN GOBEL; ERIC LARSON; LIN MCKINNEY; RYAN CROSS; PHILLIP HOFFMAN; DEBRA SIMMONS; ABELARDO MORALES; PETER BLUMER; CAROLYN HAMMOND; MELISSA LEGGETT; KELLY MOFFETT; EVAN GROGAN; CARLOS MEDINA; ALBERTO DOMINGUEZ; CATHERINE BERNARD; MICHAEL BREIEN; LAURA GILL; THOMAS SCHILLE; JUDITH STANTON; RANDY RICKERT; BRYAN ZIRKEL; JAMES KUNDRAT; ROBERT SMITH; MARIA KOTOVA; JOSIPA CASEY; LUAN SNYDER; BEN BAKER; BRIAN NGUYEN; HATTIE WILLIAMS; BILL HOLVEY; LOURDES VARGAS; KENDALL SNYDER; NOMER MEDINA; SAMERIA GOFF; URSULA PYLAND; MARCELL CHAPMAN; KAYE KURASH; HOLLY AMROMIN; JOHN CHAPMAN; MARY D'ANGELO; GEORGE RUDY; AYMAN MOUSA; SHELLY HENDERSON; JEFFREY HATHAWAY; DENNIS J. MURPHY; DOUGLAS A. PATTERSON; JOHN GENTRY; LINDA RUTH SCOTT; DANIELLE KAY GILLELAND; JOSEPH BOWE; MICHAEL DESOUTO, Plaintiffs-Appellees, GREG DIRENZO, Petitioner-Appellee, HYUNDAI MOTOR AMERICA; KIA MOTORS AMERICA; KIA MOTORS CORPORATION; GROSSINGER AUTOPLEX, INC., FKA Grossinger Hyundai; JOHN KRAFCIK; HYUNDAI MOTOR COMPANY; SARAH KUNDRAT, Defendants-Appellees, v. CAITLIN AHEARN; ANDREW YORK, Objectors-Appellants.IN RE HYUNDAI AND KIA FUEL ECONOMY LITIGATION, KEHLIE R. ESPINOSA; NICOLE MARIE HUNTER; JEREMY WILTON; KAYLENE P. BRADY; GUNTHER KRAUTH; ERIC GRAEWINGHOLT; REECE PHILIP THOMSON; ALEX MATURANI; NILUFAR REZAI; JACK ROTTNER; LYDIA KIEVIT; REBECCA SANDERS; BOBBY BRANDON ARMSTRONG; SERGIO TORRES; RICHARD WOODRUFF; MARSHALL LAWRENCE GORDON; JOEL A. LIPMAN; JAMES GUDGALIS; MARY P. HOESSLER; STEPHEN M. HAYES; BRIAN REEVES; SAM HAMMOND; MARK LEGGETT; EDWIN NAYTHONS; MICHAEL WASHBURN; IRA D. DUNST; BRIAN WEBER; KAMNEEL MAHARAJ; KIM IOCOVOZZI; HERBERT J. YOUNG; LINDA HASPER; LESLIE BAYARD; TRICIA FELLERS; ORLANDO ELLIOTT; JAMES BONSIGNORE; MARGARET SETSER; GUILLERMO QUIROZ; DOUGLAS KURASH; ANDRES CARULLO; LAURA S. SUTTA; GEORGIA L. THOMAS; ERIC J. OLSON; JENNIFER MYERS; TOM WOODWARD; JEROLD TERHOST; CAMERON JOHN CESTARO; DONALD BROWN; MARIA FIGUEROA; CONSTANCE MARTYN; THOMAS GANIM; DANIEL BALDESCHI; LILLIAN E. LEVOFF; GIUSEPPINA ROBERTO; ROBERT TRADER; SEAN GOLDSBERRY; CYNTHIA NAVARRO; OWEN CHAPMAN; MICHAEL BREIN; TRAVIS BRISSEY; RONALD BURKARD; ADAM CLOUTIER; STEVEN CRAIG; JOHN J. DIXSON; ERIN L. FANTHORPE; ERIC HADESH; MICHAEL P. KEETH; JOHN KIRK MACDONALD; MICHAEL MANDAHL; NICHOLAS MCDANIEL; MARY J. MORAN-SPICUZZA; GARY PINCAS; BRANDON POTTER; THOMAS PURDY; ROCCO RENGHINI; MICHELLE SINGLTEON; KEN SMILEY; GREGORY M. SONSTEIN; ROMAN STARNO; GAYLE A. STEPHENSON; ANDRES VILLICANA; RICHARD WILLIAMS; BRADFORD L. HIRSCH; ASHLEY CEPHAS; DAVID E. HILL; CHAD MCKINNEY; MORDECHAI SCHIFFER; LISA SANDS; DONALD KENDIG; KEVIN GOBEL; ERIC LARSON; LIN MCKINNEY; RYAN CROSS; PHILLIP HOFFMAN; DEBRA SIMMONS; ABELARDO MORALES; PETER BLUMER; CAROLYN HAMMOND; MELISSA LEGGETT; KELLY MOFFETT; EVAN GROGAN; CARLOS MEDINA; ALBERTO DOMINGUEZ; CATHERINE BERNARD; MICHAEL BREIEN; LAURA GILL; THOMAS SCHILLE; JUDITH STANTON; RANDY RICKERT; BRYAN ZIRKEL; JAMES KUNDRAT; ROBERT SMITH; MARIA KOTOVA; JOSIPA CASEY; LUAN SNYDER; BEN BAKER; BRIAN NGUYEN; HATTIE WILLIAMS; BILL HOLVEY; LOURDES VARGAS; KENDALL SNYDER; NOMER MEDINA; SAMERIA GOFF; URSULA PYLAND; MARCELL CHAPMAN; KAYE KURASH; HOLLY AMROMIN; JOHN CHAPMAN; MARY D'ANGELO; GEORGE RUDY; AYMAN MOUSA; SHELLY HENDERSON; JEFFREY HATHAWAY; DENNIS J. MURPHY; DOUGLAS A. PATTERSON; JOHN GENTRY; LINDA RUTH SCOTT; DANIELLE KAY GILLELAND; JOSEPH BOWE; MICHAEL DESOUTO, Plaintiffs-Appellees, GREG DIRENZO, Petitioner-Appellee, HYUNDAI MOTOR AMERICA; KIA MOTORS AMERICA; KIA MOTORS CORPORATION; GROSSINGER AUTOPLEX, INC., FKA Grossinger Hyundai; JOHN KRAFCIK; HYUNDAI MOTOR COMPANY; SARAH KUNDRAT, Defendants-Appellees, v. ANTONIO SBERNA, Objector-Appellant.IN RE HYUNDAI AND KIA FUEL ECONOMY LITIGATION, KEHLIE R. ESPINOSA; NICOLE MARIE HUNTER; JEREMY WILTON; KAYLENE P. BRADY; GUNTHER KRAUTH; ERIC GRAEWINGHOLT; REECE PHILIP THOMSON; ALEX MATURANI; NILUFAR REZAI; JACK ROTTNER; LYDIA KIEVIT; REBECCA SANDERS; BOBBY BRANDON ARMSTRONG; SERGIO TORRES; RICHARD WOODRUFF; MARSHALL LAWRENCE GORDON; JOEL A. LIPMAN; JAMES GUDGALIS; MARY P. HOESSLER; STEPHEN M. HAYES; BRIAN REEVES; SAM HAMMOND; MARK LEGGETT; EDWIN NAYTHONS; MICHAEL WASHBURN; IRA D. DUNST; BRIAN WEBER; KAMNEEL MAHARAJ; KIM IOCOVOZZI; HERBERT J. YOUNG; LINDA HASPER; LESLIE BAYARD; TRICIA FELLERS; ORLANDO ELLIOTT; JAMES BONSIGNORE; MARGARET SETSER; GUILLERMO QUIROZ; DOUGLAS KURASH; ANDRES CARULLO; LAURA S. SUTTA; GEORGIA L. THOMAS; ERIC J. OLSON; JENNIFER MYERS; TOM WOODWARD; JEROLD TERHOST; CAMERON JOHN CESTARO; DONALD BROWN; MARIA FIGUEROA; CONSTANCE MARTYN; THOMAS GANIM; DANIEL BALDESCHI; LILLIAN E. LEVOFF; GIUSEPPINA ROBERTO; ROBERT TRADER; SEAN GOLDSBERRY; CYNTHIA NAVARRO; OWEN CHAPMAN; MICHAEL BREIN; TRAVIS BRISSEY; RONALD BURKARD; ADAM CLOUTIER; STEVEN CRAIG; JOHN J. DIXSON; ERIN L. FANTHORPE; ERIC HADESH; MICHAEL P. KEETH; JOHN KIRK MACDONALD; MICHAEL MANDAHL; NICHOLAS MCDANIEL; MARY J. MORAN-SPICUZZA; GARY PINCAS; BRANDON POTTER; THOMAS PURDY; ROCCO RENGHINI; MICHELLE SINGLTEON; KEN SMILEY; GREGORY M. SONSTEIN; ROMAN STARNO; GAYLE A. STEPHENSON; ANDRES VILLICANA; RICHARD WILLIAMS; BRADFORD L. HIRSCH; ASHLEY CEPHAS; DAVID E. HILL; CHAD MCKINNEY; MORDECHAI SCHIFFER; LISA SANDS; DONALD KENDIG; KEVIN GOBEL; ERIC LARSON; LIN MCKINNEY; RYAN CROSS; PHILLIP HOFFMAN; DEBRA SIMMONS; ABELARDO MORALES; PETER BLUMER; CAROLYN HAMMOND; MELISSA LEGGETT; KELLY MOFFETT; EVAN GROGAN; CARLOS MEDINA; ALBERTO DOMINGUEZ; CATHERINE BERNARD; MICHAEL BREIEN; LAURA GILL; THOMAS SCHILLE; JUDITH STANTON; RANDY RICKERT; BRYAN ZIRKEL; JAMES KUNDRAT; ROBERT SMITH; MARIA KOTOVA; JOSIPA CASEY; LUAN SNYDER; BEN BAKER; BRIAN NGUYEN; HATTIE WILLIAMS; BILL HOLVEY; LOURDES VARGAS; KENDALL SNYDER; NOMER MEDINA; SAMERIA GOFF; URSULA PYLAND; MARCELL CHAPMAN; KAYE KURASH; HOLLY AMROMIN; JOHN CHAPMAN; MARY D'ANGELO; GEORGE RUDY; AYMAN MOUSA; SHELLY HENDERSON; JEFFREY HATHAWAY; DENNIS J. MURPHY; DOUGLAS A. PATTERSON; JOHN GENTRY; LINDA RUTH SCOTT; DANIELLE KAY GILLELAND; JOSEPH BOWE; MICHAEL DESOUTO, Plaintiffs-Appellees, GREG DIRENZO, Petitioner-Appellee, HYUNDAI MOTOR AMERICA; KIA MOTORS AMERICA; KIA MOTORS CORPORATION; GROSSINGER AUTOPLEX, INC., FKA Grossinger Hyundai; JOHN KRAFCIK; HYUNDAI MOTOR COMPANY; SARAH KUNDRAT, Defendants-Appellees, v. PERI FETSCH, Objector-Appellant.IN RE HYUNDAI AND KIA FUEL ECONOMY LITIGATION, KEHLIE R. ESPINOSA; NICOLE MARIE HUNTER; JEREMY WILTON; KAYLENE P. BRADY; GUNTHER KRAUTH; ERIC GRAEWINGHOLT; REECE PHILIP THOMSON; ALEX MATURANI; NILUFAR REZAI; JACK ROTTNER; LYDIA KIEVIT; REBECCA SANDERS; BOBBY BRANDON ARMSTRONG; SERGIO TORRES; RICHARD WOODRUFF; MARSHALL LAWRENCE GORDON; JOEL A. LIPMAN; JAMES GUDGALIS; MARY P. HOESSLER; STEPHEN M. HAYES; BRIAN REEVES; SAM HAMMOND; MARK LEGGETT; EDWIN NAYTHONS; MICHAEL WASHBURN; IRA D. DUNST; BRIAN WEBER; KAMNEEL MAHARAJ; KIM IOCOVOZZI; HERBERT J. YOUNG; LINDA HASPER; LESLIE BAYARD; TRICIA FELLERS; ORLANDO ELLIOTT; JAMES BONSIGNORE; MARGARET SETSER; GUILLERMO QUIROZ; DOUGLAS KURASH; ANDRES CARULLO; LAURA S. SUTTA; GEORGIA L. THOMAS; ERIC J. OLSON; JENNIFER MYERS; TOM WOODWARD; JEROLD TERHOST; CAMERON JOHN CESTARO; DONALD BROWN; MARIA FIGUEROA; CONSTANCE MARTYN; THOMAS GANIM; DANIEL BALDESCHI; LILLIAN E. LEVOFF; GIUSEPPINA ROBERTO; ROBERT TRADER; SEAN GOLDSBERRY; CYNTHIA NAVARRO; OWEN CHAPMAN; MICHAEL BREIN; TRAVIS BRISSEY; RONALD BURKARD; ADAM CLOUTIER; STEVEN CRAIG; JOHN J. DIXSON; ERIN L. FANTHORPE; ERIC HADESH; MICHAEL P. KEETH; JOHN KIRK MACDONALD; MICHAEL MANDAHL; NICHOLAS MCDANIEL; MARY J. MORAN-SPICUZZA; GARY PINCAS; BRANDON POTTER; THOMAS PURDY; ROCCO RENGHINI; MICHELLE SINGLTEON; KEN SMILEY; GREGORY M. SONSTEIN; ROMAN STARNO; GAYLE A. STEPHENSON; ANDRES VILLICANA; RICHARD WILLIAMS; BRADFORD L. HIRSCH; ASHLEY CEPHAS; DAVID E. HILL; CHAD MCKINNEY; MORDECHAI SCHIFFER; LISA SANDS; DONALD KENDIG; KEVIN GOBEL; ERIC LARSON; LIN MCKINNEY; RYAN CROSS; PHILLIP HOFFMAN; DEBRA SIMMONS; ABELARDO MORALES; PETER BLUMER; CAROLYN HAMMOND; MELISSA LEGGETT; KELLY MOFFETT; EVAN GROGAN; CARLOS MEDINA; ALBERTO DOMINGUEZ; CATHERINE BERNARD; MICHAEL BREIEN; LAURA GILL; THOMAS SCHILLE; JUDITH STANTON; RANDY RICKERT; BRYAN ZIRKEL; JAMES KUNDRAT; ROBERT SMITH; MARIA KOTOVA; JOSIPA CASEY; LUAN SNYDER; BEN BAKER; BRIAN NGUYEN; HATTIE WILLIAMS; BILL HOLVEY; LOURDES VARGAS; KENDALL SNYDER; NOMER MEDINA; SAMERIA GOFF; URSULA PYLAND; MARCELL CHAPMAN; KAYE KURASH; HOLLY AMROMIN; JOHN CHAPMAN; MARY D'ANGELO; GEORGE RUDY; AYMAN MOUSA; SHELLY HENDERSON; JEFFREY HATHAWAY; DENNIS J. MURPHY; DOUGLAS A. PATTERSON; JOHN GENTRY; LINDA RUTH SCOTT; DANIELLE KAY GILLELAND; JOSEPH BOWE; MICHAEL DESOUTO, Plaintiffs-Appellees, GREG DIRENZO, Petitioner-Appellee, HYUNDAI MOTOR AMERICA; KIA MOTORS AMERICA; KIA MOTORS CORPORATION; GROSSINGER AUTOPLEX, INC., FKA Grossinger Hyundai; JOHN KRAFCIK; HYUNDAI MOTOR COMPANY; SARAH KUNDRAT, Defendants-Appellees, v. DANA ROLAND, Objector-Appellant.IN RE HYUNDAI AND KIA FUEL ECONOMY LITIGATION, KEHLIE R. ESPINOSA; NICOLE MARIE HUNTER; JEREMY WILTON; KAYLENE P. BRADY; GUNTHER KRAUTH; ERIC GRAEWINGHOLT; REECE PHILIP THOMSON; ALEX MATURANI; NILUFAR REZAI; JACK ROTTNER; LYDIA KIEVIT; REBECCA SANDERS; BOBBY BRANDON ARMSTRONG; SERGIO TORRES; RICHARD WOODRUFF; MARSHALL LAWRENCE GORDON; JOEL A. LIPMAN; JAMES GUDGALIS; MARY P. HOESSLER; STEPHEN M. HAYES; BRIAN REEVES; SAM HAMMOND; MARK LEGGETT; EDWIN NAYTHONS; MICHAEL WASHBURN; IRA D. DUNST; BRIAN WEBER; KAMNEEL MAHARAJ; KIM IOCOVOZZI; HERBERT J. YOUNG; LINDA HASPER; LESLIE BAYARD; TRICIA FELLERS; ORLANDO ELLIOTT; JAMES BONSIGNORE; MARGARET SETSER; GUILLERMO QUIROZ; DOUGLAS KURASH; ANDRES CARULLO; LAURA S. SUTTA; GEORGIA L. THOMAS; ERIC J. OLSON; JENNIFER MYERS; TOM WOODWARD; JEROLD TERHOST; CAMERON JOHN CESTARO; DONALD BROWN; MARIA FIGUEROA; CONSTANCE MARTYN; THOMAS GANIM; DANIEL BALDESCHI; LILLIAN E. LEVOFF; GIUSEPPINA ROBERTO; ROBERT TRADER; SEAN GOLDSBERRY; CYNTHIA NAVARRO; OWEN CHAPMAN; MICHAEL BREIN; TRAVIS BRISSEY; RONALD BURKARD; ADAM CLOUTIER; STEVEN CRAIG; JOHN J. DIXSON; ERIN L. FANTHORPE; ERIC HADESH; MICHAEL P. KEETH; JOHN KIRK MACDONALD; MICHAEL MANDAHL; NICHOLAS MCDANIEL; MARY J. MORAN-SPICUZZA; GARY PINCAS; BRANDON POTTER; THOMAS PURDY; ROCCO RENGHINI; MICHELLE SINGLTEON; KEN SMILEY; GREGORY M. SONSTEIN; ROMAN STARNO; GAYLE A. STEPHENSON; ANDRES VILLICANA; RICHARD WILLIAMS; BRADFORD L. HIRSCH; ASHLEY CEPHAS; DAVID E. HILL; CHAD MCKINNEY; MORDECHAI SCHIFFER; LISA SANDS; DONALD KENDIG; KEVIN GOBEL; ERIC LARSON; LIN MCKINNEY; RYAN CROSS; PHILLIP HOFFMAN; DEBRA SIMMONS; ABELARDO MORALES; PETER BLUMER; CAROLYN HAMMOND; MELISSA LEGGETT; KELLY MOFFETT; EVAN GROGAN; CARLOS MEDINA; ALBERTO DOMINGUEZ; CATHERINE BERNARD; MICHAEL BREIEN; LAURA GILL; THOMAS SCHILLE; JUDITH STANTON; RANDY RICKERT; BRYAN ZIRKEL; JAMES KUNDRAT; ROBERT SMITH; MARIA KOTOVA; JOSIPA CASEY; LUAN SNYDER; BEN BAKER; BRIAN NGUYEN; HATTIE WILLIAMS; BILL HOLVEY; LOURDES VARGAS; KENDALL SNYDER; NOMER MEDINA; SAMERIA GOFF; URSULA PYLAND; MARCELL CHAPMAN; KAYE KURASH; HOLLY AMROMIN; JOHN CHAPMAN; MARY D'ANGELO; GEORGE RUDY; AYMAN MOUSA; SHELLY HENDERSON; JEFFREY HATHAWAY; DENNIS J. MURPHY; DOUGLAS A. PATTERSON; JOHN GENTRY; DANIELLE KAY GILLELAND; JOSEPH BOWE; MICHAEL DESOUTO, Plaintiffs-Appellees, GREG DIRENZO, Petitioner-Appellee, HYUNDAI MOTOR AMERICA; KIA MOTORS AMERICA; KIA MOTORS CORPORATION; GROSSINGER AUTOPLEX, INC., FKA Grossinger Hyundai; JOHN KRAFCIK; HYUNDAI MOTOR COMPANY; SARAH KUNDRAT, Defendants-Appellees. v. LINDA RUTH SCOTT, Objector-Appellant.IN RE HYUNDAI AND KIA FUEL ECONOMY LITIGATION, JOHN GENTRY; LINDA RUTH SCOTT; DANIELLE KAY GILLELAND; JOSEPH BOWE; MICHAEL DESOUTO, Plaintiffs, and JAMES BEN FEINMAN, Appellant, v. HYUNDAI MOTOR AMERICA; KIA MOTORS AMERICA; KIA MOTORS CORPORATION; GROSSINGER AUTOPLEX, INC., FKA GROSSINGER HYUNDAI; JOHN KRAFCIK; HYUNDAI MOTOR COMPANY; SARAH KUNDRAT, Defendants-Appellees.

Subsequent History: Counsel Amended June 12, 2019.

Prior History:  [**1] Appeal from the United States District Court for the Central District of California. D.C. No. 2:13-ml-02424-GW-FFM. George H. Wu, District Judge, Presiding.

Espinosa v. Ahearn (In re Hyundai & Kia Fuel Econ. Litig.), 881 F.3d 679, 2018 U.S. App. LEXIS 1626 (9th Cir. Cal., Jan. 23, 2018)

Disposition: AFFIRMED.

CORE TERMS

settlement, district court, class member, predominance, objectors, certify, class action, Reimbursement, automakers, state law, notice, attorney's fees, certification, calculating, multiplier, estimate, courts, class certification, choice of law, consumer protection, consumer, parties, cases, variations, lodestar, nationwide class, plaintiffs', announced, fuel, choice-of-law

Civil Procedure, Appeals, Standards of Review, Abuse of Discretion, Special Proceedings, Class Actions, Compromise & Settlement, Appellate Review, Certification of Classes, Prerequisites for Class Action, Settlements, Settlement Agreements, Enforcement, Prerequisites for Class Action, Predominance, Class Members, Absent Members, Judgments, Entry of Judgments, Preliminary Considerations, Federal & State Interrelationships, Choice of Law, Venue, Multidistrict Litigation, Notice of Class Action, Content of Notice, Content of Notice, Opt Out Provisions, Constitutional Law, Fundamental Rights, Procedural Due Process, Scope of Protection, Adequacy of Representation, Class Attorneys, Fees