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FCC v. Pacifica Found.

Supreme Court of the United States

April 18, 1978, Argued ; July 3, 1978, Decided

No. 77-528

Opinion

 [*729]   [***1081]   [**3030]  MR. JUSTICE STEVENS delivered the opinion of the Court (Parts I, II, III, and IV-C) and an opinion in which THE CHIEF JUSTICE and MR. JUSTICE REHNQUIST joined (Parts IV-A and IV-B).

This case requires that we decide whether the Federal Communications Commission has any power to regulate a radio broadcast that is indecent but not obscene.

A satiric humorist named George Carlin recorded a 12-minute monologue entitled "Filthy Words" before a live audience in a California theater. He began by [****8]  referring to his thoughts about "the words you couldn't say on the public, ah, airwaves, um, the ones you definitely wouldn't say, ever." He proceeded to list those words and repeat them over and over again in a variety of colloquialisms. The transcript of the recording, which is appended to this opinion, indicates frequent laughter from the audience.

At about 2 o'clock in the afternoon on Tuesday, October 30, 1973, a New York radio station, owned by respondent Pacifica  [*730]  Foundation, broadcast the "Filthy Words" monologue. A few weeks later a man, who stated that he had heard the broadcast while driving with his young son, wrote a letter complaining to the Commission. He stated that, although he could perhaps understand the "record's being sold for private use, I certainly cannot understand the broadcast of same over the air that, supposedly, you control."

The complaint was forwarded to the station for comment. In its response, Pacifica explained that the monologue had been played during a program about contemporary society's attitude toward language and that, immediately before its broadcast, listeners had been advised that it included "sensitive language which might [****9]  be regarded as offensive to some." Pacifica characterized George Carlin as "a significant social satirist" who "like Twain and Sahl before him, examines the language of ordinary people. . . . Carlin is not mouthing obscenities, he is merely using words to satirize as harmless and essentially silly our attitudes towards those words." Pacifica stated that it was not aware of any other complaints about the broadcast.

On February 21, 1975, the Commission issued a declaratory order granting the complaint and holding that Pacifica "could have been the subject of administrative sanctions." 56 F. C. C. 2d 94, 99. The Commission did not impose formal sanctions, but it did state that the order would be "associated with the station's license file, and in the event that subsequent complaints are received, the Commission will then decide whether it should utilize any of the available sanctions it has been granted by Congress." 2

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438 U.S. 726 *; 98 S. Ct. 3026 **; 57 L. Ed. 2d 1073 ***; 1978 U.S. LEXIS 135 ****; 3 Media L. Rep. 2553; 43 Rad. Reg. 2d (P & F) 493

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION v. PACIFICA FOUNDATION ET AL.

Subsequent History:  [****1]  Petition For Rehearing Denied October 2, 1978.

Prior History: CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIRCUIT.

Disposition:  181 U. S. App. D. C. 132, 556 F.2d 9, reversed.

CORE TERMS

broadcast, laughter, words, indecent, obscene, First Amendment, monologue, radio, offensive, regulation, adults, audience, censorship, communications, listening, license, patently offensive, message, sexual, cases, radio communication, circumstances, afternoon, join, privacy interest, hear, protected speech, recording, prurient, warnings

Business & Corporate Compliance, Overview & Legal Concepts, Related Legal Issues, Indecency & Obscenity, Criminal Law & Procedure, Sex Crimes, Obscenity, General Overview, Crimes Against Persons, Communications Law, Regulated Practices, Content Regulation, Public Broadcasting, Constitutional Law, The Judiciary, Case or Controversy, Advisory Opinions, Regulators, US Federal Communications Commission, Authorities & Powers, Licensing, Allocation Methods, Fundamental Freedoms, Freedom of Speech, Scope, Bill of Rights, Obscenity, Elements, Regulated Entities, Broadcasting, Rate Regulation