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United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
February 25, 2010, Decided
[***1117] [*1368] Opinion for the court filed by Circuit Judge MOORE. Dissenting [**2] opinion filed by Circuit Judge NEWMAN.
MOORE, Circuit Judge.
Mr. Frank Gaylord appeals the decision of the United States Court of Federal Claims that a stamp issued by the United States Postal Service made fair use of a copyrighted work, specifically, soldier sculptures in formation constituting part of the Korean War Veterans Memorial (Memorial). The court determined that Mr. Gaylord was the sole author of the soldier sculptures and that his sculptures were not exempt from copyright protection under the Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act (AWCPA). Because the court erred when it determined that the stamp made fair use of Mr. Gaylord's work, but it correctly determined that the government was not a joint author and that the AWCPA did not bar an infringement suit, we affirm-in-part, reverse-in-part, and remand for a determination of damages.
This case arises from the Postal Service's decision to issue a 37-cent stamp depicting a portion of the Memorial. The path from the concept of the Memorial to the creation of the stamp spans more than 15 years.
In 1986, Congress enacted legislation to erect a memorial in Washington, D.C. to honor veterans of the Korean War. Authorization [**3] of Memorial, Pub. L. No. 99-572, § 1, 100 Stat. 3226 (1986). The legislation authorized the American Battle Monuments Commission (Commission) to establish the Memorial, and the Commission sponsored a contest to select the designer of the Memorial. A team from the Pennsylvania State University (the Penn State Team) won the contest with a proposal to create 38 larger-than-life granite soldiers in formation. According to the Penn State Team, "[f]rom a distance, one [would see] the Memorial as an elusive, dream-like presence of ghostly figures moving across a remote landscape." Although its original concept undoubtedly influenced the design of the Memorial, the Penn State Team eventually withdrew from the project. 1
[***1118] The Army Corps of Engineers selected Cooper-Lecky Architects, P.C. (Cooper-Lecky) as the prime contractor for the creation, construction, and installation of the Memorial. Cooper-Lecky sponsored a competition to select the sculptor for the Memorial. Mr. Gaylord, a nationally recognized sculptor, won the contest.
Full case includes Shepard's, Headnotes, Legal Analytics from Lex Machina, and more.
595 F.3d 1364 *; 2010 U.S. App. LEXIS 3915 **; 94 U.S.P.Q.2D (BNA) 1116 ***; Copy. L. Rep. (CCH) P29,897
FRANK GAYLORD, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. UNITED STATES, Defendant-Appellee.
Subsequent History: On remand at, Judgment entered by Gaylord v. United States, 98 Fed. Cl. 389, 2011 U.S. Claims LEXIS 613 (Fed. Cl., Apr. 22, 2011)
Prior History: [**1] Appeal from the United States Court of Federal Claims in 06-CV-539, Judge Thomas C. Wheeler.
Gaylord v. United States, 85 Fed. Cl. 59, 2008 U.S. Claims LEXIS 357 (2008)
Disposition: AFFIRMED-IN-PART, REVERSED-IN-PART, and REMANDED.
stamp, Memorial, fair use, soldiers, photograph, transformative, contributions, sculptures, Veterans, rights, copyrighted work, ownership, architectural, creative, weighed, copyright infringement, registration, contractor, purposes, display, statues, clear error, authorship, infringement, depicting, hire, Contracting, certificate, authors, parties
Civil Procedure, Appeals, Standards of Review, Clearly Erroneous Review, Copyright Law, Civil Infringement Actions, Elements, General Overview, De Novo Review, Defenses, Fair Use, Fair Use Determination, Factors, Scope of Copyright Protection, Ownership Interests, Joint Authors & Works, Presumptions, Validity of Copyright, Protected Subject Matter, Limited Protection for Ideas, Statutory Copyright & Fixation, Architectural Works