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United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
September 10, 1987, Argued ; August 26, 1988, Decided
[*227] D. H. GINSBURG, Circuit Judge:
We are called upon to review a determination by the Federal Trade Commission that petitioners, the Superior Court Trial Lawyers Association and four individual member attorneys, Ralph J. Perrotta, Karen E. Koskoff, Reginald G. Addison and [**2] Joanne D. Slaight, (hereinafter collectively SCTLA) violated Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, 15 U.S.C. § 45 (1982), by organizing and participating in a concerted refusal to deal or "boycott" aimed at forcing the District of Columbia government to increase the hourly compensation paid to attorneys who represent indigent defendants in criminal cases before the District of Columbia Superior Court. The Commission concluded that the boycott constituted an "unfair method of competition" and entered an order requiring the petitioners to cease and desist from similar conduct in the future. 1 For the reasons stated below, we grant the petition for review, in part, and remand to the Commission to determine whether SCTLA had the market power necessary for the boycott to violate Section 5.
[**3] [*228] I.
The District of Columbia Criminal Justice Act, D.C. Code Ann. §§ 11-2601 -- 11-2609 (1981 and 1987 Supp.) (CJA or Act) provides for the reimbursement of private lawyers who are appointed to represent indigent criminal defendants. 2 Of all defendants who are unable to pay for counsel, 85% are represented by attorneys appointed under the CJA; another eight to ten percent are represented by the Public Defender Service (PDS), generally in more serious cases, and the rest are represented by third year law students (3-5%) and by pro bono private attorneys (under.5%). I.D.F. 19, 20.
Any member in good standing of the D.C. Bar, who has a local address and telephone number, may register with the CJA office of the PDS to receive appointments under the Act. Appointments are made by a Commissioner (or, on weekends, [**4] by a Superior Court judge) who compares a list of eligible defendants with a list of lawyers who have indicated their availability by telephoning the CJA office of the PDS between 7:45 a.m. and 8:15 a.m. that day. For the most part, names on the two lists are simply matched up in the order in which they appear until all the defendants have been provided counsel. The appointing official exercises some discretion, however, to assign a lawyer out of turn on the basis of the complexity of the case, the lawyer's known preferences, or the official's assessment of the lawyer's ability.
Full case includes Shepard's, Headnotes, Legal Analytics from Lex Machina, and more.
856 F.2d 226 *; 1988 U.S. App. LEXIS 11814 **; 272 U.S. App. D.C. 272; 1988-2 Trade Cas. (CCH) P68,196
SUPERIOR COURT TRIAL LAWYERS ASSOCIATION, et al., PETITIONERS v. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, RESPONDENT
Prior History: [**1] Petition for Review of an Order of the Federal Trade Commission.
boycott, market power, lawyers, petitioners', cases, anti trust law, immunity, Sherman Act, rates, motivation, appointments, condemnation, prices, anticompetitive, antitrust, rate increase, per se rule, political activity, government action, suppliers, indigent defendant, price-fixing, competitors, rights, aimed, horizontal, regulation, hourly rate, nonviolent, purchaser
Antitrust & Trade Law, Price Fixing & Restraints of Trade, Cartels & Horizontal Restraints, General Overview, Sherman Act, Per Se Rule & Rule of Reason, Regulated Industries, Higher Education & Professional Associations, Horizontal Refusals to Deal, Sherman Act, Per Se Violations, Criminal Law & Procedure, Counsel, Effective Assistance of Counsel, Trials, Exemptions & Immunities, Noerr-Pennington Doctrine, Regulated Practices, Horizontal Market Allocation, Governments, Public Improvements, Constitutional Law, Fundamental Freedoms, Freedom of Speech, Scope, Expressive Conduct, Commercial Speech, Boycotts & Picketing, Bill of Rights, Congressional Duties & Powers, Commerce Clause, Interstate Commerce, Prohibition of Commerce, Market Definition