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United States v. Pyles - 904 F.3d 422 (6th Cir. 2018)

Rule:

To justify stopping a car, an officer must be able to point to specific and articulable facts which, taken together with rational inferences from those facts, reasonably warrant that intrusion. Once an officer discovers that a car's owner has an outstanding arrest warrant, he needs only reasonable suspicion that the owner is in the vehicle. It is fair to infer that the registered owner of a car is in the car absent information that defeats the inference. Considerable authority supports this inference. This inference may, however, be defeated by contrary evidence. 

Facts:

Trooper Brad Ramsey pulled over a car after discovering that its registered owner had an outstanding arrest warrant. In a subsequent search of the car, Trooper Ramsey and other officers found marijuana, methamphetamine, a firearm, and three occupants—but not the owner. At trial in federal district court, one of the occupants, defendant Joshua Pyles, filed a motion to suppress suppress the gun and dugs. The motion was denied. A jury convicted Pyles of a drug and a firearm offense, and the two other occupants of the car, defendant Jason Whitis and Robbie Whitis, pleaded guilty—Robbie to the drug and firearm offense and Jason to the drug offense. Pyles appealed, challenging the district court's decision denying the motion to suppress; Jason Whitis appealed, contesting the procedural and substantive reasonableness of his 200-month sentence. 

Issue:

Did the traffic stop violate Pyles' Fourth Amendment rights, or did the district court err in sentencing Whitis?

Answer:

No.

Conclusion:

The court affirmed Pyles' conviction and Whitis' sentence. The court ruled that Pyles' claim that the district court should have suppressed the evidence since the traffic stop violated the Fourth Amendment was without merit because the record showed that the owner of the vehicle had an outstanding arrest warrant, which gave the police officer reasonable suspicion to initiate a traffic stop. The district court had ample grounds for ruling that Trooper Ramsey had no information that would defeat the inference that the owner was in the car when he stopped it. As to Whitis' sentence, the court ruled that the district court did not clearly violate the procedural requirements for considering Whitis' arguments and offering a reasoned basis for rejecting them. Likewise, while the district court varied substantially upward in imposing a 200-month sentence, it appreciated the point and nonetheless concluded that Whitis' guidelines range did not adequately account for his criminal history. This, the sentence was substantively reasonable.

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