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White v. United States - 207 A.3d 580 (D.C. 2019)


When considering the sufficiency of evidence, an appellate court views the evidence in the light most favorable to the government, giving full play to the right of the fact-finder to determine credibility, weigh the evidence, and draw justifiable inferences of fact, and making no distinction between direct and circumstantial evidence. The evidence is sufficient if any rational fact-finder could have found the elements of the crime beyond a reasonable doubt.


Co-defendant Phanessa Haynes filed an insurance claim reporting that somebody had stolen the rims and tires from her car. However, upon investigation by the insurer's fraud investigation unit, many warning signs of fraud emerged. These included the recent purchase of the policy, the Haynes' eagerness to settle the claim, and a discrepancy between the addresses on the tire merchant's website and the receipts. Additionally, the insurer obtained the police report filed by Haynes, in which she estimated the value of the stolen items as only about $1,400. Haynes hired WTF Towing to take her car to its lot for repair. An altercation happened in the towing lot when Haynes discovered a scratch on her car while Philip Lovell, an attendant at WTF's lot, was installing tires and rims on her car. Haynes called defendant Dominic A. White to come to the lot where pointed out Lovell as the person whom she had argument with. White struck Lovell with a steel pipe. Lovell was hospitalized due to the injuries he sustained in the attack. Haynes was charged with insurance fraud, conspiracy to commit insurance fraud, and solicitation of a violent crime. After trial in District of Columbia superior court, a jury convicted her of the two insurance-related charges only; she did not appeal. White was charged with insurance fraud, conspiracy to commit insurance fraud, aggravated assault while armed with "a pole," assault with a dangerous weapon (the pole), and possession of a prohibited weapon (the pole). A jury in superior court convicted him on all five counts. White appealed, challenging the sufficiency of the evidence to support his convictions for insurance fraud, conspiracy, and aggravated assault while armed ("AAWA"). He also argued that the trial judge committed reversible error in responding to a question from the jury.


(a) Did the trial court err when responding to jury questions? (b) Was there sufficient evidence for the insurance fraud conviction?; (b) Was there sufficient evidence for the AAWA conviction?


(a) No; (b) No; (c) Yes.


The District of Columbia Court of Appeals affirmed the superior court's judgment in part, reversed the judgment in part, and remanded the matter for resentencing. The court ruled, inter alia, that: (a) in responding the jury's question regarding he pole allegedly used by White, the trial judge accurately instructed that the Government did not have the additional burden to prove that the pole in evidence was the exact object used in the attack. (b) White's claim that he was Haynes' "unwitting sidekick" was without merit, as a rational fact-finder could have found otherwise. For instance, text messages and emails between the two defendants  provided sufficient evidence from which a juror could have justifiably inferred White's culpability in a conspiracy to commit insurance fraud; (b) The Government presented insufficient evidence to convict White of AAWA because the record did not establish that Lovell suffered extreme physical pain; his injuries did not require him to stay overnight in the hospital or receive surgery; (c) Nonetheless, while the AAWA conviction could not stand, the evidence was sufficient to support a conviction of the lesser-included offense of assault causing significant bodily injury ("ASBI") while armed, as the head injuries sustained by Lovell required immediate medical attention administered by trained medical professionals.

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