"Effective December 1, 2013, an amendment to Rule 11(b)(1) takes effect that requires a [federal district court] judge, during a plea colloquy, to inform the defendant and ensure that he understands that "if convicted, a defendant who is not a United States citizen may be removed from the United States, denied citizenship, and denied admission to the United States in the future." Fed. R. Crim. P. 11(b)(1)(O). This amendment is intended to implement the holding in Padilla v. Kentucky, 130 S. Ct. 1473 (2010). Information on the background of this amendment is here: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CDOC-113hdoc25/pdf/CDOC-113hdoc25.pdf "