NEW YORK - The City of New York is liable for violating the constitutional rights of a class of black and Hispanics via the New York City Police Department's (NYPD) stop-and-frisks performed over the past decade, and while the city need not end the practice, it must carry the practice "out in a manner that protects the rights and liberties of all New Yorkers, while still providing much needed police protection," a New York federal judge ruled in two related opinions issued Aug. 12 (David Floyd, et al. v. City of New York, No. 08-1034, Jaenean Ligon, et al. v. City of New York, et al., No. 12-2274, S.D. N.Y.; 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 113205).