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Matter of SIngh, 27 I&N Dec. 598 (BIA 2019)
(1) The standard of proof necessary to bar the approval of a visa petition based on marriage fraud under section 204(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. § 1154(c) (2012), is “substantial and probative evidence.”
(2) The degree of proof necessary to constitute “substantial and probative evidence” is more than a preponderance of evidence, but less than clear and convincing evidence; that is, the evidence has to be more than probably true that the marriage is fraudulent.
(3) The nature, quality, quantity, and credibility of the evidence of marriage fraud contained in the record should be considered in its totality in determining if it is “substantial and probative.”
(4) The application of the “substantial and probative evidence” standard requires the examination of all of the relevant evidence and a determination as to whether such evidence, when viewed in its totality, establishes, with sufficient probability, that the marriage is fraudulent.
(5) Both direct and circumstantial evidence may be considered in determining whether there is “substantial and probative evidence” of marriage fraud under section 204(c) of the Act, and circumstantial evidence alone may be sufficient to constitute “substantial and probative evidence.”