International Law

Canada, Arctic and Atlantic Islands Toolbox

Welcome to our Canada, Arctic, and Atlantic Islands Toolbox, our collection of laws and legal analysis for Canada, both federal and provincial, as well as the unique Arctic and Atlantic Islands. 
     Canada       Supreme Court of Canada
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Doing Business in Canada


Map of Canada, showing its provinces and St. Pierre & Miquelon
     Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France)   
The Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (in French: Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon) is a group of small islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, the main islands being Saint Pierre and Miquelon, south of the Canadian island province of Newfoundland. The islands are as close as 25 kilometres (circa 16 miles) from Newfoundland. This tiny archipelago is all that remains of the former colonial empire of New France that remains under French control. Considered to be a part of Metropolitan France, French law applies directly in these territorial collectivity, augmented slightly by enabling and other specific laws and regulations. You may consult the bookstore (boutique) of LexisNexis France for the best and most comprehensive sources on French law as it may be applied on St. Pierre and Miquelon.
You will find a detailed description and expert analysis of French law as it applies throughout metropolitan France and the overseas territories in our treatise Doing Business in France.
 Aerial view of Bouvet Island
     Bouvet Island (Norway)   
Bouvet Island is an uninhabited Antarctic volcanic island in the South Atlantic Ocean, south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa). It is a dependent territory of Norway and is not subject to the Antarctic Treaty. It is the most remote island in the world. There are several very small islands near it (including Lars Island to the southwest), forming altogether an island group.
Svalbardis an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean north of mainland Europe, about midway between mainland Norway and the North Pole and now constitutes the northernmost part of Norway. Three of the islands are populated: Spitsbergen, Bear Island and Hopen, the largest settlement being Longyearbyen. Long disputed among several nations, the Spitsbergen Treaty (1920) recognised Norwegian sovereignty over Svalbard; however, this sovereign power has some limitations in taxation, environmental conservation, non-discrimination and certain military activity. Under the terms of the treaty, citizens of signatory states have rights to exploit mineral deposits and other natural resources "on a footing of absolute equality".   By the 1925 Svalbard Act, Svalbard became a full part of the Kingdom of Norway, but some particular legislation applies there.
 Longyearbyen, Svalbard
  The Falkland Islands
     Falkland Islands (UK) (Spanish: Islas Malvinas)
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
     South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (UK)
     Saint Helena & Dependencies (UK)   
St Helena was named after St Helena of Constantinople by Portuguese navigator João da Nova, who discovered the uninhabited on May 21, 1502. It is an island of volcanic origin and a British overseas territory in the South Atlantic Ocean. The territory of Saint Helena is constituted by the island of Saint Helena, and its dependencies of Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha.
St. Helena has a history of over 500 years since it was first discovered. Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and English vessels all called at the island during the first century after its discovery as it was a verdant land, with abundant with trees and fresh water in the path of the Trade Winds that carried vessels around the Cape of Good Hope. Britain's second oldest remaining colony (1660) (after Bermuda), Saint Helena is one of the most isolated islands in the world and was for several centuries of vital strategic importance to ships sailing to Europe from Asia and South Africa. For several centuries, the British used the island as a place of exile, most notably for Napoleon Bonaparte.
Tristan da Cunha, including Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, and the Nightingale Islands, is a dependency of the British overseas territory of St. Helena. Thus, executive authority is vested in the Queen, who is represented in the territory by the Governor of St. Helena. The Governor resides permanently in Saint Helena, and an Administrator is appointed to represent the Governor in the islands. The Administrator functions as the head of the local government; the Administrator takes advice from the Island Council, which consists of up of to eight elected and three appointed members. Tristan da Cunha is policed by one full-time police officer and three special constables. Tristan da Cunha has its own legislation, but the law of Saint Helena applies to the extent that it does not conflict with local law, and to the extent that (1) it is suitable for local circumstances and (2) is subject to such adaptations as local insular circumstances may require.
Ascension Island, also a dependency of St. Helena, is an isolated island of volcanic origin in the South Atlantic Ocean, named after the day of its recorded discovery, Ascension Day in 1503. The island is the location of Wideawake Airfield, which is a joint facility of the Royal Air Force and the United States Air Force. The island was used extensively by the British military during the Falklands War. Ascension Island hosts one of five ground antennas (others are on Kwajalein, Diego Garcia, Colorado Springs and Hawaii) that assist in the operation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) navigational system. 
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